Cannabis: plant of the cannabinaceae family, its scientific name is “Cannabis sativa Linné” (“Cannabis sativa L.”). Probably one of the first plants to be tamed by humans, it was already cultivated and used in the early Neolithic times (8000 BC). It is one of the most cultivated plants in the world, both for the multitude of its fields of application (ropes, textiles, paper, food, building material, etc.) and for its beneficial virtues (ecological, therapeutic, well-being, spiritual ). In common parlance, this word mainly means “Indian hemp” with a relatively high THC content and psychoactive effects, as opposed to “industrial hemp” or “hemp” with very low THC content, devoid of psychoactive effects. Cannabis, designating the varieties of the plant with psychoactive virtues, and derived products from its flowers has many synonyms in the English-speaking world.
Cannabis Sativa: In common parlance the term ‘sativa’ is used to designate certain subspecies of Cannabis sativa L. It is an approximate term, several classifications of subspecies of cannabis prevailing, and whose relevance tends to disappear given the high degree of hybridization between the many natural phenotypes of cannabis that have been undertaken over the past century. It can designate, essentially in opposition to the term ‘indica’, plants whose morpohology is close to industrial hemp (larger and slender plants, sparse foliage, thinner leaflets, less resinous flowers and late ripening …). Within cultivars of ‘Indian hemp’ varieties, sativa varieties have a lower CBD / THC ratio than indica varieties and are more characterized for their psychedelic effects linked to high THC levels.
Cannabis Indica: In common parlance the term ‘indica’ is used to designate certain subspecies of Cannabis sativa L. As with the associated term ‘Sativa’ which it is often used in opposition to, it is a term today quite approximate especially for designate the current hybrid varieties used in the production of sinsemilla flowers. Initially, it is associated with cannabis phenotypes whose botanical characteristics derive from the geographical origins of these plants originating from the foothills of the Himalayas and growing in harsh climatic conditions (smaller and bushy plants, dense foliage, thick leaflets, very flowers resinous and fast maturing…). Within cultivars of indien Indian hemp ’varieties, indica varieties have a higher CBD / THC ratio than sativa varieties and are more characterized for their relaxing and soothing effects linked to CBD. Traditionally these varieties were used for the production of cannabis resins and are those still used in the famous hashish valleys: Parvati, Tirah, Yarkhun, Bekaa…
Cannabis-for-wellness: refers to the use of cannabinoid products for better sleep or relaxation. By extension, refers to the entire industry specializing in the production and distribution of cannabidiol (CBD) products, which contain less than 0.2% THC in Europe and less than 1% THC in Switzerland for legal purposes.
Medical cannabis: also called medical marijuana. It designates the use of cannabis in the form of drugs, as an alternative therapy. Medical cannabis is strictly reserved for patients suffering from serious illnesses and whose suffering is not relieved by conventional treatments.
Recreational cannabis: refers to the use of cannabis which contains high doses of THC, the famous euphoric molecule. The production, distribution and consumption of this form of cannabis involve public health and public order issues. To date, no European country has yet legalized cannabis for recreational use.
Cannabinoids: This family of molecules brings together fairly variable and not chemically related compounds, for some. Cannabis, at the origin of the designation of this family, contains a part of these compounds, henceforth more strictly qualified, as “phytocannabinoids” (or plant cannabinoids, as opposed to endocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids). Phytocannabinoids are secondary metabolites synthesized by the plant to protect itself from its environment and are a class of terpenophenolic compounds unique to cannabis and of which more than a hundred have been identified to date. Some of these compounds constitute active principles whose therapeutic utility is the subject of a great deal of research and they made it possible, in the 1990s, to identify a new complex communication system essential to the functioning of organisms of vertebrate species. : the Endocannabinoid System (SEC). The SEC regulates several functions in these organisms and is activated by the interaction between the endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the ligands ‘anandamide’ or ‘2-AG’, the main endocannabinoids known to date. Some of the phytocannabinoids in cannabis are therefore known to interfere with ESA and can also interact with the CB1 and CB2 receptors, which makes them active ingredients particularly interesting for therapeutic applications and medical research. The best known phytocannabinoids are Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinol (CBN); Cannabigerol (CBG); Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV); Cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Cannabichromene (CBC).
Active compounds: Compounds having an activity on the organism and which provides a therapeutic effect. For cannabis, many compounds can be considered as such and come from different classes of molecules: terpenes, cannabinoids, flavonoids, etc.
CBD, CBN, THC: phyto-cannabinoids (or plant cannabinoids, as opposed to synthetic cannabinoids) the most widespread and the most studied among all those that can be found in the cannabis plant. These three molecules are also the three main psychoactive substances in the plant.
CBD: contraction of the word cannabidiol, a relaxing molecule of cannabis.
CBN: contraction of the word cannabinol, harmful cannabinoid (responsible for depression, loss of motivation and loss of long-term memory) which is not present in the fresh plant, but which is produced by oxidation of THC (during drying methods inadequate, for example, exposing cannabis plants in direct sunlight to dry them).
THC: contraction of tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive substance derived from cannabis, euphoric molecule. When a product contains a high concentration, it is then a drug, a narcotic, which comes in the form of leaves or resin. THC in high doses is dangerous, it concentrates in the brain and alters perception and sensations.
CBD flowers or CBD buds: flowering or fruiting tops of the Cannabis plant whose THC content does not exceed 0.2%.
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Hemp: plant of the cannabinaceae family, which is among the most cultivated in the world. It was already cultivated in the Neolithic. Its scientific name is cannabis.
Psychoactive: (adjective) Which has a psychotropic effect. Said of a plant or a substance. Cannabis is a plant that contains psychoactive substances. Note that a drug can also be psychoactive.
Psychotropic: Said of a plant or a substance whose consumption by the individual will impact his nervous system (perception, moods, consciousness). THC, present naturally, in more or less high dose, in the cannabis plant according to its varieties and the objective sought by the cultivator, is precisely a psychotropic substance. Thus, when the cannabis plant has a “high” THC content, we say that the plant is psychotropic and is therefore sometimes still considered a narcotic (example: in France, when the THC content> 0 , 2%), unless it is used strictly within the framework of a therapeutic objective.
Terpenes: A class of molecules, belonging to organic hydrocarbons, about a hundred of which have been identified in cannabis. These compounds are also found in many other plants, such as conifers, and are part of the main phyto-compounds that make up essential oils. The content and combination of the different terpenes is largely responsible for the specific aromas and odors of each cannabis phenotype. We speak, thus, of “terpene profile” to refer to the content of terpenes present in the varieties of cannabis flowers distributed on the market.
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